Wednesday, December 8, 2010

"Alien Life" from Mono Lake, California

In chemistry 101 and 102 even at the High School level, one is introduced to the Chart of Elements. We learn about electrons, protons, neutrons and all those orbital shells.

Organic life, is based upon Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Helium, Phosphorous and a smigging of the other elements. It is what makes DNA and RNA nucleotide bases.

Alien life, could include Silicon, as a replacement for the Carbon.
Or was it allowing the microbes to evolve to utilize the arsenic? If life as we know it is carbon based and then silicon based life form could possibly exist....what about replacements within the DNA strand for the other elements?

and or the nucleotide bases? If "Alien life" exists even a secondary and unique evolution of life on Mars, then how could the DNA or nucleotide bases have unique variations to actually be deemed "Alien life"? One cannot take a mouse an...d expect it to radically change the DNA and nucleotide sequences to find out if it would be an alien life form.

However, a terrestial microbe could be coaxed into possible modifications given limiting factors, i.e., replacement of the Phosphorus with arsenic to see if it survives--and in the collection of this microbe that currently exist in an area where high concentrations of arsenic exist. Then what is causing it to exist naturally within the environment? There isn't a perilous contention in allow the microbe to exist and observe multi-generations in a more harsh environment surrounded by arsenic. The microbe and the descending populations over time show evolution occurring, at a basic level. Darwinian Finch's and the changes from an initial founding population.

This is only getting popular press because the prospect of "Aliens" as compared to an argument over evolution. Shine the light where it resides. Evolution in action!

Yet, Aliens makes a more interesting story than Evolution.

Monday, December 6, 2010

The Ancient Lakes of the Saraha

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The Sahara has not always been the arid, inhospitable place that it is today – it was once a savannah teeming with life, according to researchers at the Universities of Reading and Leicester.

Eight years of studies in the Libyan Desert area of Fazzan, now one of the harshest, most inaccessible spots on Earth, have revealed swings in its climate that have caused considerably wetter periods, lasting for thousands of years, when the desert turned to savannah and lakes provided water for people and animals.

This, in turn, has given us vital clues about the history of humans in the area and how these ancient inhabitants coped with climate change as the land began to dry up around them again.

In their article ‘Ancient lakes of the Sahara’, which appears in the January-February issue of American Scientist magazine, Dr Kevin White of the University of Reading and Professor David Mattingly of the University of Leicester explain how they used satellite technology and archaeological evidence to reveal new clues about both the past environment of the Sahara and of human prehistory in the area.

“The climate of the Sahara has been highly variable over the millennia and we have been able to provide much more specific dating of these changes,” said Dr White. “Over the last 10,000 years, there have been two distinct humid phases, separated by an interval of highly variable but generally drying conditions between roughly 8,000 and 7,000 years ago. Another drying trend took place after about 5,000 years ago, leading to today’s parched environment.”

The researchers determined where surface water was once present by using radar images of the desert taken from space. These images showed rivers, lakes and springs now buried below shifting sand dunes. As these bodies dried out thousands of years ago, the resulting mineral deposits cemented the lake sediments together and these hardened layers are detectable by using radar images.

“This information was essential because archaeologists need to focus their efforts near ancient rivers, lakes and springs, where people used to congregate due to their basic need for water,” said Dr White. “We found large quantities of stone tools around the ancient water sources, indicating at least two separate phases of human occupation.”

The earliest humans in the area were Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, who lived in the Fazzan between about 400,000 and 70,000 years ago. They survived by hunting large and small game in a landscape that was considerably wetter and greener than it is now. A prolonged arid phase from about 70,000 to 12,000 years ago apparently drove humans out of the region, but then the rains returned – along with the people.

Around 5,000 years ago, the climate began to dry out again, but this time people adapted by developing an agricultural civilization with towns and villages based around oases. This process culminated with the emergence of the Garamantian society in the first millennium BC.

Professor Mattingly said: “We have been given a completely new view of this elusive and remarkable society. The Garamantes were known to the ancient Romans as a race of desert warriors, but archaeology has shown they had agriculture, cities and a phenomenally advanced system of water extraction that kept their civilization going for 1,000 years as the land was drying up around them.”

They cultivated a variety of high-grade cereals, such as wheat and barley, and other crops such as date palms, vines, olives, cotton, vegetables and pulses.

As the Saharan climate began to dry out they drew their water from a large subterranean aquifer (an underground bed of rock that yields water) and transported it through a network of tunnels.

“The fact that the Garamantes developed this ingenious irrigation system shows that our ability to apply engineering solutions to deal with climate change is by no means only a modern phenomenon,” said Dr White. “The gradual drying up of springs and desiccation of the surrounding landscape must have seemed ominous, but they knew they had to develop sophisticated methods to cope with it.

“But even this remarkably adaptable society – one of the first urban civilizations built in a desert – could not cope forever with a falling water table and intensifying aridity. Sometime around 500AD, the Garamantian society collapsed and their irrigation system fell into disuse.”

Associated with this research, Reading’s School of Human and Environmental Sciences, in collaboration with the Department of Meteorology, are undertaking a major project, linking climate, water and civilization in the Middle East and North Africa, with a £1,240,000 grant from the Leverhulme Trust.

Dr Kevin White Further information:

The Ancient Lakes of the Saraha